Pipe plan in plumbing

Once you have decided what plumbing work you intend to do, make a sketch of the entire job. You can then estimate the amount of material and work involved and decide on the best way to begin. Although a rough sketch is useful, a detailed sketch will give a more accurate estimate of cost in time and material. It should indicate clearly the number and type of fittings required, the points where connections will be made, the obstacles which may be encountered, and the probable installation procedure.

Draw to scale if you can. But if you cannot, realize that even the roughest sketch will help you visualize the completed installation. Without any drawing of the necessary pipe and connections, your measurements will almost certainly prove incorrect because you have neglected structural obstacles and other building features. Your estimate will be off, too.

How to draw the layout

To make the sketch or layout, obtain some graph paper and several differently coloured pencils. Each colour will represent a different kind of pipe. One standard marking method is as follows:

  • Blue—waste piping
  • Red—hot water piping
  • Yellow—vent piping
  • Green—cold water piping
  • Hard black—existing plumbing lines and construction
  • Soft black—changes in existing plumbing lines and construction

If you do not have coloured pencils, different shadings can indicate the kinds of pipe. Any method which avoids confusion is acceptable. The following general sketching rules should prove useful:

  1. Draw all vertical piping vertically on the graph paper.
  2. Draw all horizontal piping diagonally on the graph paper and downward from the wall line in order to give the impression of a view of the installation from above. This will help you to picture the work.
  3. Select the corner of the room farthest from the projected installation as your viewpoint while sketching. This will give an over-all picture in correct perspective.
  4. All horizontal piping running to the right should pitch diagonally to the right on your drawing; piping to the left should pitch diagonally to the left.
  5. Draw your sketch as near to scale as possible. To do this, let each box on the graph paper equal a specific distance in your layout. The smaller the measurement unit the larger, more detailed the sketch.

An example

In order to apply the general rules, we will now sketch a kitchen sink installation. One box on the graph paper will equal 6".

  1. Place yourself so you can see the wall on which the fixture is to be set. Draw a vertical line in the middle of your graph paper equal in scale to the height of the room. From the top and bottom of this line, draw in your floor and ceiling lines diagonally right and left. This is the basic outline of the room.
  2. Now, locate and draw in important structural features or obstacles; such as windows, beam headers, partitions, and the like. In our drawing, a window is located 4' 6" from the corner. Since each box equals six inches, count in nine boxes from the corner line to locate it correctly. Since it is the same distance from the floor, count up nine boxes. Where the two lines meet will be the lower left-hand corner of the window. The entire window can be lined in by transferring its measurements in scale.
  3. Using a hard black pencil, if you are following the marking method given above, draw in existing lines.
  4. Locate the sink in correct position, using a soft black or other identifying pencil.
  5. Following their positions as closely as possible, put in, coloured or shaded lines to identify the new lines to be installed.
  6. Wherever the new piping has to change direction, you will need a fitting. A good way to keep track of fittings is to line off a sheet of paper in two or three columns, list all fittings by name in one column, and when one is needed, put a check in the second column. When your sketch is finished, total the fittings needed in the third column. The list will form a convenient and accurate guide when you are ordering your materials.
  7. Further sketching will give an accurate layout of the waste, vent, and water piping you will need. By using the same kind of list recommended for tabulating fittings, you can determine your pipe requirements. If your sketch is accurate, you can measure the pipe needed on it.

Plumbing basics

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