Having covered the various overall details concerned with efficient kitchen planning, let us now consider each of the three major kitchen areas separately before seeing how they can be fitted together:
The receiving and storing area
To show the logical sequence of work areas, let us first consider that section where the food supplies first enter the kitchen. These supplies are usually delivered or brought in through the back entrance of the house, therefore, if this entrance opens into the kitchen, time and effort will be saved if the receiving area is the closest to this door.
A table or cabinet top of sufficient size to bold the average delivery will be convenient, and the refrigerator, freezer, and storage cabinets are placed here also. The storage cabinets in this area will contain items, such as canned goods, large supplies of such commodities as sugar, flour, preserves and the like. Smaller quantities of these items may also be found in the preparation section, as they are used constantly during a day's meal preparation.
The major piece of kitchen equipment in this area is the refrigerator. This item comes in several sizes and models to meet various family needs. The accompanying table will give you the size that will best suit your requirements. When planning your kitchen's floor layout, make sure you know which model you intend to get so that proper space allotment can be made.
Also know how much room must be left to permit the door to open fully. Refrigerators can be purchased to open from either the left or right side, so it will be possible to obtain one which will permit easy access to the working surface regardless of which side it is on.
If you plan for a corner placement, an extra 6" to 8" will be needed between all sides that face a wall for cleaning purposes and in case you should desire to paint the room at a later date. Refrigerators with a freezer compartment may be a labor-saver if you do not expect a separate freezer.
Near the refrigerator, as part of the adjacent storage space, should be placed the bins for such as potatoes and onions.
The preparation area
The work counter where most of the food preparation takes place will usually be placed between the storing area and the preparation area. This makes all the vegetables, fruits, and staples easily available. These items can then easily be cleaned or mixed before cooking.
In the center of this second work area should be found the major fixture, the kitchen sink. If there is one, the dishwasher is also found bore. The sink should be one that is equipped with a swing faucet which mixes hot and cold water. A dish spray is a desired complement to the faucet, and the drain should be of the cup strainer type. This type is easily converted should an electric garbage-disposal unit ever be attached.
In choosing a sink, remember that it is the kind of purchase that is usually permanent, since there is little likelihood that it will ever need replacement. Sinks have single and double bowls. Those having bowls of equal size are excellent for washing and rinsing dishes. Those having one bowl deeper than the other may also be used as an auxiliary laundry tub.
Drainboards are usually provided, some sinks having one, others having two. A left-hand drainboard will prove more convenient for a righthanded person, and vice versa. Such boards come either grooved or flat. Grooved boards will drain dishes better, but flat boards have more uses in food preparation.
Tests made by leading home economists show that a sink height of 36" from the floor is the most satisfactory. For unusually tall or short women this height can be modified. Correct placement is most important as the sink is the pivotal point for the entire kitchen. If height is adjusted, unnecessary stooping and bending can be prevented and the chance for fatigue will be decreased.
There are three major rim-types in kitchen sinks. Two of them are roll rimmed, one with and one without an apron. The addition of an apron adds extra cost but makes a much neater appearance. The third type has a flat rim so that it can be set into a counter easily to form a smooth and continuous surf ace with little chance for leakage, thus assuring an even work flow.
Sinks have been made of several materials, but the most durable and acceptable are those made of porcelain enamel. Among its advantages are smoothness and easy cleaning. It is not affected by household acids and retains its color and finish for almost its entire long life.
The size of a kitchen sink will vary according to the number of bowls and the number of drainboards. Both bowls and drainboards are approximately the same size, being about 18" by 24". Once you decide on the style you desire-one bowl and one drainboard, one bowl and two boards, two bowls and one drainboard, two bowls and two boards - you can plan on approximate area your sink will measurements should be taken the sink itself at the time of purchase.
The installation of the kitchen sink should be accomplished precision as it will be that is permanent. The problems encountered in installing the dishwasher and the sink electric disposal unit, as the latter are acquired, are also there.
The area below the sink has traditionally been wasted space, but modern planning has enclosed this area for storage. For those sinks not equipped with electric disposal units, and these comprise the majority, directly under the sink is a most convenient place for the garbage pail and other refuse containers. In addition, extra soap, dish towels, and other dishwashing necessities can be kept here. If drawer space is available, cutlery for paring and cleaning can be stored.
The cooking and serving area
The next work area is where the final steps of food preparation are done. The cooking area centers around the range, either gas or electric, or the stove, either oil, wood, or coal. For the sake of I will refer to this appliance as the "range" and planners can substitute whichever type of appliance they choose.
The range is usually connected to the cleaning area by a counter which serves a two-way purpose. As the food is cleaned or mixed at the sink, it can be placed on this connecting counter until ready for the range or oven. In like manner, as pots and dishes are used during the preparation of a meal, they can be put here until ready to be washed and put away.
Cabinets in this area contain cooking utensils mostly. However, the silver and linen can be stored here, as can such supplies as spices, coffee, tea, fats, and the like.
To supplement the facilities in this area, a row of electric outlets makes a useful addition for connecting various appliances. A cutting board for bread or meats can be stored nearby until needed or may be built in as part of the counter top. The counter and surrounding area should be covered with a suitable stain- and heatresistant material.
The range itself is a most important part of kitchen planning. You will have to know early in the planning stage which type, if not exactly which model, you will have. Approximate dimensions will facilitate the placement of this utility.
The gas or electric range is the most convenient type and, if insulated properly for heat retension, is the the most efficient. Coal and wood stoves are inexpensive to operate are not as easily kept clean and a considerable extra work load because of the constant need of bringing for them, and keeping a fire going in them or building new fires. Gas and electric ranges are equipped with timing devices and accurate thermostats to control temperatures.
Later model ranges have table tops which offer an added work surface alongside the burners. Older still available, have the oven extending upward from the burner level.
A still later innovation in kitchen cooking devices is the sectional range,, which is not a single range at all, but rather the component parts of a range. Burner sections may be, chased in pairs so that as man, few as needed may be installeled.
The planning or control center
A fourth section of the kitchen, which the housewife will find very helpful but not essential, is a planning center, where she can plan all the duties which are part of kitchen work, such as food ordering, menu preparation, and the like.
This center is preferably a desk, equipped with both drawers and shelves so that recipes may be kept, cook books may be bold conveniently, and household records and accounts may be maintained together. Acting as control center for kitchen activities, this desk can be the location for the phone, a radio, and such accessories as paper, pens and pencils, clips, pins, and the like.
Cleaning supplies storage
Space for storing cleaning supplies, such as mops, brooms, brushes, pails, rags, soaps, waxes, etc., should be provided, but not within the area of the work centers. Convenient closet, should be placed along a wall apart from surfaces where food is prepared. A small dust pan and brush, however, may be kept in an under-the-sink cabinet where the garbage or waste can is.
Soaps, furniture cleaners polishes, and bleaches should be kept on high shelves out of the reach of children. Many of these are poisonous or mildly toxic.