For a kitchen sink installation, it may be either hung from a wall or set in a cabinet. The cabinet sink installation is preferred in most homes today. Pleasing to the eye, it affords extra storage and work space. On the other hand, it is more expensive than the wall-hung sink. For a kitchen sink installation, usually you will find it easier to install the faucet and waste strainer before setting the sink in place.
Wall-hung kitchen sink installation
The wall-hung kitchen sink is mounted on a bracket or a hanger secured to the wall. It must be hung well, otherwise the installation will be unhygienic and will not last very long. Follow the instructions on hanging the sink carefully.
For a kitchen sink installation, you can hang a sink at whatever height you find most convenient. The best height is the one suited to the person who uses the sink most frequently. For a person of average stature, a distance of 36" from overflow rim to floor will be most satisfactory.
When you have decided on the height of your sink, mark off on the wall the area that will be covered by the back of the sink, as follows:
Before you start with your kitchen sink installation, mark on the wall, directly above the waste outlet, the height of your sink from overflow rim to floor. Then measure the distance from the overflow rim of the sink to the top of the back of the kitchen sink. In most cases this will not exceed 8". Add this second measurement to the first. The result represents the distance from the top of the back of the sink to the floor. Mark it on the wall directly above the waste outlet.
Now measure the distance from the centre of the outlet opening in the sink to each side of the sink. Scribe lines corresponding exactly to these distances to the left and right of the two marks made previously. The area marked off on the wall is the amount that will be covered by the back of the sink. Remove lath and plaster from the area.
Obtain a board at least 7/8" thick and the same size as the opening. It will do most of the work in supporting the sink, so it should be as strong and as knot-free as possible. Notch the studs uncovered so that the board can be set in flush with the plaster. You should have uncovered at least three studs. If not, extend the opening until you have done so.
If the water supply piping will have to come through the board, drill it in the correct spots with an expansive bit. These openings will enable you to bring nipples through from the supply branch tees. Screw the board to the studs with wood screws. To be on the safe side, drill the holes for the screws beforehand. This lessens the danger of splitting.
Place the sink hangers temporarily in position on the back of your sink. Make sure the lugs are set firmly in place. Measure the distance from the top of the sink to the top of the hanger is distance varies from 3/8" to 1/2" for cast iron sinks, and from 1/4" to 3/8" for pressed steel sinks. Next, measure the distance from each end of the sink to the centre of the nearest lug.
Set the hangers in their proper positions on the board. The distance from the top of the board to the top of the hanger should be the same as that from the top of the sink to the top of the hanger. The distance from the end of the board to the centre of the first hanger socket should be the same as that from each end of the sink to the nearest lug.
Level the hangers
Use a spirit level for greater accuracy. Make sure that the top edges of the hangers are even with one another. Secure the hangers to the board with wood screws. Drill the board before putting in the screws. You are now ready to hang the sink.
Mark lightly the top of the sink directly above the centre of each lip. Mark the wall above the centre of each lug opening on the hanger. These marks will serve as guides when you are setting the sink in place. Since the kitchen sink is quite heavy, two men should raise it into place.
Lift the sink to the proper height. Using the guide marks, slip the sink down until the lips engage the lug openings on the hanger. Force the sink into place by tapping it with the fiat of your hand. To test the installation, press down on the front of the sink. If it comes away from the wall the slightest bit, the sink hangers have not been properly installed. Check the location of your piping in relation to the sink. The pipes can be moved slightly if necessary. If your measurements have been careful, however, there should be no need to do so.
Cabinet kitchen sink installation
Manufacturers vie with one another in designing more attractive, more practical cabinet sinks. They range from the fiat-rim sink set in a wooden cabinet to an "electric" sink in which electric garbage disposer and automatic dishwasher form an integral part of the unit. Many of these sinks can be bought as individual units. When putting in a cabinet sink, you must adhere to the manufacturer's instructions.
One method of 'making a cabinet sink installation—or, for that matter, modernizing an old one—deserves our attention. It is simple, relatively inexpensive, and gives an accurate idea of the principle behind the installation of a flat-rim sink. Basically it is this: the flat rim permits the juncture of the sink and cabinet to be sealed by pressure.
To install a flat-rim sink in an existing cabinet, screw corner clips to the corners of the opening for the sink in the top of the cabinet. This opening should be just large enough to permit the sink to be set inside it. Place the sink in the opening, allowing it to rest for the time being on the corner clips. Level the sink carefully so that the top of the rim is flush with the top of the cabinet. The bolts in the corner clips will help you to adjust the sink accurately.
Put the frame around the sink and caulk the underside of both flanges. Hook the lugs on to the frame. Place one lug below the joint in the frame. The rest of the lugs should be 6" to 8" apart. The last ones on each side should be as close as possible to the corner. When all the lugs are in place, tighten them. The sink should now be firmly set in and completely waterproof.
Kitchen sink strainer
To prevent solid waste from entering the waste lines front the sink, you can employ either a simple strainer or a basket assembly. The latter is removable and can be used as a plug as well as a strainer. Strainer and basket are installed much the same.
The procedure for installing it is simple. Putty the lower side of the flange on the body assembly and insert the body assembly through the outlet opening in the sink. Working from the underside of the sink, place the rubber washer and the locking shell over the shank of the body assembly. Screw the locknut over the threaded shank. Screw it so tightly that the flange is tight against the surface of the sink. This will probably displace some of the putty on the lower side of the flange.
Slip the washer over the top of the tail piece, and the loose-head coupling over the bottom of the tail piece. Screw the loose-head coupling to the threaded shank of the body assembly. Place the basket in the body assembly to complete the installation.
To install a combination faucet, bring 1/2" nipples from the 3/4" by 1/2" Ts through the sink. They should extend 1/2' through the sink. If your faucets receive water vertically, the supply lines will have to be slightly lower than the faucets and the water brought up by means of a 90° elbow attached to the 1/2" nipple.
The combination faucet is joined to the supply piping by union connections. Disassemble them. Screw the thimble to the 1/2" nipple. Tighten with either a square or parmalee wrench (other wrenches are apt to mar the surface of the faucet). Set the fibre washer in the union coupling and screw on the union nut. Use an 8" or 10" square wrench, but carefully, as too much leverage will strip the union lock nuts. You will probably find it easiest to make both connections at the same time. When the waste line has been connected, test the assembly by running water through the lines and inspecting for leaks.
Many modern faucets have a spray attachment for rinsing dishes. It is in- stalled through an extra opening in the sink. It is attached to the centre of the valve assembly and water is directed through it by means of a diverter valve.
The best trap for use in a kitchen sink is a half-S trap. It should have a cleanout at the bottom of the trap to facilitate removing waste material caught in the bag of the trap. A union connection in the outlet of the trap enables you to disconnect the trap without materially affecting the rest of the piping.
The first step in installation is to disassemble the trap. Working first with the outlet side of the trap, place the loose-head coupling over the tail piece of the sink. Then place a metal friction washer and a rubber washer over the tail piece and slide the house side of the trap over the tail piece. Screw the loose-head coupling to the top part of the trap. Make it as tight as you can with your hands but do not use a wrench at this time.
Screw a nipple into the sanitary T in the wall. The nipple should project 1/2" through the wall. Slide the wall flange over the sewer side of the trap. After placing the loose-head coup- ling, a metal friction washer, and a rubber washer over the sewer side of the trap, insert the upper part of the trap into the nipple. When it has been pushed in for about 3/4" to 1", the union nut on the sewer side of the trap should be directly over the end of the house side of the trap. If the projection of the trap into the nipple is more than 1", you will have to saw off some of the end with a hack saw.
You must now connect the house and sewer sides of the trap. Place the rubber washer in the seat prepared for it in the collar of the trap. Slip the union coupling over the collar and rubber washer. Screw it hand-tight to the bottom part of the trap. Inspect your job and, if all connections appear to be in line and there is no strain or bent tubing in any place, tighten up all couplings. Use a 12" to 14" square wrench. Test both faucet and trap by running the water, and slip the wall flange or escutcheon into place against the wall.